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Abrão KC, Francisco RP, Miyadahira S, Cicarelli DD, Zugaib M. Elevation of uterine basal tone and fetal heart rate abnormalities after labor analgesia: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 2009 Jan;113(1):41-7.



Alfirevic, Z., Devane, D., & Gyte, G. M. (2013). Continuous cardiotocography (CTG) as a form of electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) for fetal assessment during labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 5, CD006066. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006066.pub2



American College of, O., & Gynecologists. (2009). ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 106: Intrapartum fetal heart rate monitoring: nomenclature, interpretation, and general management principles. Obstet Gynecol, 114(1), 192-202. doi:10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181aef106



Ayres-de-Campos, D., Arulkumaran, S., & Panel, F. I. F. M. E. C. (2015a). FIGO consensus guidelines on intrapartum fetal monitoring: Introduction. Int J Gynaecol Obstet, 131(1), 3-4. doi:10.1016/j.ijgo.2015.06.017



Ayres-de-Campos, D., Arulkumaran, S., & Panel, F. I. F. M. E. C. (2015b). FIGO consensus guidelines on intrapartum fetal monitoring: Physiology of fetal oxygenation and the main goals of intrapartum fetal monitoring. Int J Gynaecol Obstet, 131(1), 5-8. doi:10.1016/j.ijgo.2015.06.018



Ayres-de-Campos, D., Spong, C. Y., Chandraharan, E., & Panel, F. I. F. M. E. C. (2015). FIGO consensus guidelines on intrapartum fetal monitoring: Cardiotocography. Int J Gynaecol Obstet, 131(1), 13-24. doi:10.1016/j.ijgo.2015.06.020



Bakker PC, Colenbrander GJ. Verstraten AA. Van Geijn HP. The quality of intrapartum fetal heart rate monitoring. Eur J Obstet Gynecol reprod Biol 2004;116:22-7.



Bakker PC, Zikkenheimer M, van Geijn HP. The quality of intrapartum uterine activity monitoring. J Perinat Med. 2008;36(3):197-201.



Bakker PC, van Geijn HP. Uterine activity: implications for the condition of the fetus. J Perinat Med. 2008;36(1):30-7



Bennet, L., Westgate, J. A., Liu, Y. C., Wassink, G., & Gunn, A. J. (2005). Fetal acidosis and hypotension during repeated umbilical cord occlusions are associated with enhanced chemoreflex responses in near-term fetal sheep. J Appl Physiol (1985), 99(4), 1477-1482. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00431.2005



Berglund S, Grunewald C, Pettersson H, Cnattingius S. Severe asphyxia due to delivery related malpractice in Sweden 1990–2005. BJOG. 2008;115:316-23.



Birgisdottir, B. T., Holzmann, M., Varli, I. H., Graner, S., Saltvedt, S., & Nordstrom, L. (2016). Reference values for Lactate Pro 2 in fetal blood sampling during labor: a cross-sectional study. J Perinat Med. doi:10.1515/jpm-2016-0027



Blix E. Innkomst-CTG. En vurdering av testens prediktive verdier, reliabilitet og effekt. Betydning for jordmødre i deres daglige arbeid. 2006. Doctoral thesis at the Nordic School of Public Health, Gothenburg, Sweden.



Blix E, Oian P. Interobserver agreements in assessing 549 labor admission test after standardized training program. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2005:84(11):1087-92.



Cahill, A. G., Roehl, K. A., Odibo, A. O., & Macones, G. A. (2012a). Association and prediction of neonatal acidemia. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 207(3), 206 e201-208. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2012.06.046



Cahill, A. G., Roehl, K. A., Odibo, A. O., & Macones, G. A. (2012b). Association of atypical decelerations with acidemia. Obstet Gynecol, 120(6), 1387-1393. doi:http://10.1097/AOG.0b013e3182733b6e




FIGO subcommittee on standards in perinatal medicine (chairman Rooth G). Guidelines for the use of fetal monitoring. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1987;25:159-67.




Gull, I., Jaffa, A. J., Oren, M., Grisaru, D., Peyser, M. R., & Lessing, J. B. (1996). Acid accumulation during end-stage bradycardia in term fetuses: how long is too long? Br J Obstet Gynaecol, 103(11), 1096-1101



Hamilton, E., Warrick, P., & O'Keeffe, D. (2012). Variable decelerations: do size and shape matter? J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med, 25(6), 648-653. doi:10.3109/14767058.2011.594118



Herbst, A., Thorngren-Jerneck, K., Wu, L., & Ingemarsson, I. (1997). Different types of acid-base changes at birth, fetal heart rate patterns, and infant outcome at 4 years of age. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand, 76(10), 953-958



Herbst A, Wolner-Hanssen P, Ingemarsson I. Risk factors for acidemia at birth. Obstet Gynecol 1997;90(1):125-30.



Hogan L, Ingemarsson I, Thorngren-Jerneck K, Herbst A. How often is a low 5-min Apgar score in term newborns due to asphyxia? Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2007;130(2):169-75.



Holzmann, M. (2014). Lactate as an early marker of intrapartum fetal hypoxia. (PhD doctoral thesis), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden



Holzmann, M., Wretler, S., Cnattingius, S., & Nordstrom, L. (2015). Cardiotocography patterns and risk of intrapartum fetal acidemia. J Perinat Med, 43(4), 473-479. doi:10.1515/jpm-2014-0105



Holzmann M, Wretler S, Nordstrom L. Absence of accelerations during labor is of little value in interpreting fetal heart rate patterns. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2016 Jun 15. doi: 10.1111/aogs.12939. [Epub ahead of print]



Impey L, Reynolds M, MacQuillan K, Gates S, Murphy J, Sheil O. Admission cardiotocography: a randomized controlled trial. Lancet. 2003:8;361(9356):465-70.



Ingemarsson, E., Ingemarsson, I., & Westgren, M. (1981). Combined decelerations--clinical significance and relation to uterine activity. Obstet Gynecol, 58(1), 35-39



Ingemarsson I, Ingemarsson E. Fosterövervakning med CTG. Studentlitteratur 2006. No abstract available.



Jonsson M, Nordén-Lindeberg S, Ostlund I, Hanson U. Acidemia at birth, realted to obstetric characteristics and to oxytocin use, during the last two hours of labor. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2008;87(7):745-50.



Junttila EK, Karjalainen PK, Ohtonen PP, Raudaskoski TH, Ranta PO. A comparison of paracervical block with single-shot spinal for labour analgesia in multiparous women: a randomised controlled trial. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2009:18(1):15-21.



Krebs HB, Petres RE, Dunn LJ. Intrapartum fetal heart rate monitoring. VIII. Atypical variable decelerations. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1983;145(3):297-305.



Kruger, K., Hallberg, B., Blennow, M., Kublickas, M., & Westgren, M. (1999). Predictive value of fetal scalp blood lactate concentration and pH as markers of neurologic disability. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 181(5 Pt 1), 1072-1078. doi:S0002937899006742 [pii]s



Macones GA, Hankins GD, Spong CY, Hauth J, Moore T. The 2008 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development workshop report on electronic fetal monitoring: update on definitions, interpretations, and research guidelines. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;112,(3):661-6.



Manninen T, Aantaa R, Salonen M, Pirhonen J, Palo P. A comparison of the hemodynamic effects of paracervical block and epidural anesthesia for labor analgesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2000;44(4):441-5.



Neilson DR, Freeman RK, Mangan S. Signal ambiguity resulting in unexpected outcome with external fetal heart rate moinitoring. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008;198(6):717-24.



NICE guidelines. The use of electronic fetal monitoring. The use and interpretation of cardiotocography in intrapartum fetal surveillance. May 2001.



NICE guidelines. Intrapartum care: management and delivery of care to women in labour. September 2007.



Nordstrom, L., Achanna, S., Naka, K., & Arulkumaran, S. (2001). Fetal and maternal lactate increase during active second stage of labour. BJOG, 108(3), 263-268.



Pildner von Steinburg, S., Boulesteix, A. L., Lederer, C., Grunow, S., Schiermeier, S., Hatzmann, W., . . . Daumer, M. (2013). What is the "normal" fetal heart rate? PeerJ, 1, e82. doi:10.7717/peerj.82



Rosén KG, Annika Mårtendal. The Physiology of Fetal Surveillance, The Green Book of Neoventa Part I. 2014. No abstract available.



Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. The use of electronic fetal monitoring. May 2001.



Sigaard-Andersen O. An acid base chart for arterial blood with normal and pathophysiological reference areas. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1971;27:239-45.



Simpson RK, James DC, Know E. Nurse-physician communication during labor and birth: implications for patient safety. JOGNN 2006 Jul-Aug;35(4):547-56.



Triebwasser, J. E., Colvin, R., Macones, G. A., & Cahill, A. G. (2016). Nonreassuring Fetal Status in the Second Stage of Labor: Fetal Monitoring. Features and Association with Neonatal Outcomes. Am J Perinatol.doi:10.1055/s-0036-1571316



Visser, G. H., Ayres-de-Campos, D., & Panel, F. I. F. M. E. C. (2015). FIGO consensus guidelines on intrapartum fetal monitoring: Adjunctive technologies. Int J Gynaecol Obstet, 131(1), 25-29. doi:10.1016/j.ijgo.2015.06.021



Westerhuis ME, van Horen E, Kwee A, van der Tweel I, Visser GH, Moons KG. Inter- and intra-observer agreement of intrapartum ST analysis of the fetal electrocardiogram in women monitored with STAN. BJOG. 2009 Mar;116(4):545-51.



Westgate J, Wibbens B, Bennet L, Wassnik G, Parer JT, Gunn AJ. The intrapartum deceleration in center stage: a physiologic approach to the interpretation of fetal heart rate changes in labor. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2007; 197(3):236-8.



Wiberg N, Källén K, Olofsson P. Base deficit estimations in umbilical cord blood is influenced by gestational age, Choice of fetal fluid compartment, and algorithm for calculation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2006;195:1651-6



Wiberg N, Källén K, Olofsson P. Delayed umbilical cord clamping at birth has effects on arterial and venous blood gases and lactate concentrations. BJOG 2008;115:697-703.



Williams KP, Galerneau F. Intrapartum fetal heart rate patterns in the prediction of neonatal acidemia. Am J Obstet Gynecool 2003;188:820-3.





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